Workshops:  1  •  2  •  3  •  4  •  5  •  6  •  7  •  8  •  9  •  10  •  11  •  12  •  13  •  14  •  15  •  16

WS 15: Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) – Potential for Resource Efficiency in Construction Sector

Workshop Chair: Dr. Arun Kumar (Development Alternatives Group)
Date and time: Wednesday 25, 14h30 – 16h30
Room: 5


Industrialisation brought comfort to our lives, but at the expense of environmental resources. To have access to a decent shelter is among the most basic rights, however it often requires the use of concrete, the most manufactured material by volume. The quantity of cement produced has increased dramatically because of the growing world population, economic development and rapid urbanisation. The projected volume of cement production by 2050 is about 6 billion tons. In 2014 alone 4.2 billion tons of cement was produced globally and accounted for 2.7 Gt of CO2 emissions, approximately 7% of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions worldwide, making cement the second largest carbon dioxide (CO2) contributor in industry after power plants. Emissions from cement production are mainly caused by the loss of chemical CO2 during the raw materials clinkerisation, and the transport.

Cement is also a resource intensive material. A ton of conventional cement production requires 1.4 tons of limestone. The sheer quantity of cement demand in the future would put measurable and rapid impact on limestone resources around the world.

The most effective strategy to reduce CO2 emissions and use of natural resources by cement production lies in reducing its clinker content. This can be achieved by substitution of clinker with reactive materials, which up to now have typically been industrial by products: fly ash from coal fired power stations and blast furnace slag. However, supplies of these materials are limited compared to the amount of cement produced worldwide. Koilinitic clays have a considerable potential, as they are widely available and require very simple processing to be used in cement fabrication.

The objectives of the Workshop are:

1.- Explore pathways to use supplementary cementitious materials in blended cement such as Limestone Calcined Clay Cement (LC3) in reducing use of limestone resources and CO2 emissions.

2.- Explore potential contribution of LC3 towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals 9, 11, 12 and providing additional support to 13, reducing CO2 emissions and saving natural limestone resources.

3.- Bring together various stakeholders i.e. research, industry and government on the same platform and have comprehensive discussion on contributions of LC3 towards resource efficiency in cement industry and mitigation of climate change.

4.- Explore outlook of the cement industry with special reference to supplementary cementitious material use.

 Building products made using LC3 in commercial enterprises

Building products made using LC3 in commercial enterprises

 LC3 Building in TARA - India premises

LC3 Building in TARA - India premises

 LC3 building in Swiss Embassy-India Premises

LC3 building in Swiss Embassy-India Premises


Prof. Vanderley M. John – Dr. Eng. (Poli USP 1995), Guest Researcher (KTH 2000). Associate Prof. III, Dep Construction Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of São Paulo; Brazil

Prof. Vanderley M. John is Dr. Eng. in Civil Engineering from Universidade de São Paulo (1995) and Guest researcher at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) (2000-2001). He is member of various boards and committees such as, Engineering Committee at the State of São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP), Executive committee of USP Innovation Agency, Fapesp Engineering Board and CNPq Civil Engineering board (2010-2013) and CBCS – Brazilian Sustainable Construction. He advises various Brazilian governmental institutions, including Ministry of Cities and Environment, UNEP SBCI and NGOs like WWF. His research interest is focused in eco-efficient solutions for building materials and strategies to improve sustainability of the construction supply chain. He has a rich experience in materials and components and sustainable construction, with particular interest in cement based materials, mortar, fiber-cement, concrete, recycling construction demolition waste, cool surfaces, durability and simplified life cycle analysis. He is co-author of the book “The Challenge of Sustainable Construction” (O Desafio da Sustentabilidade na Construção Civil).

Dr. Urs Heierli – Director, msd consulting GmbH

Dr. Urs Heierli is a Ph.D in the field of economics from University of St. Gallen (1978). He was the Founding member and Head of SKAT (Switzerland), Head of the coordination office of SDC (Dhaka, Bangladesh), Head of the Coordination Office and of the India Programme of SDC (New Delhi, India), Senior Advisor for Rural Income Generation and Private Sector Development SDC Head-office (Berne).
He is currently the Director of msd consulting GmbH. Apart from this, he is also a part-time Lecturer at the University of St. Gallen, Coordinator of the micro-irrigation program in Central America for IDE (Denver), Senior advisor for dissemination of technologies developed by Antenna Foundation (Geneva) and Advisor to EPFL on the LC3 Project. He has conducted several training seminars on teamwork, leadership, international trade, knowledge management, workshop moderation, gender, evaluation and monitoring, rural water supply, and computer literacy and information technologies till date. His recent consultancy missions include SKAT Brick project in the Great Lakes Region (Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo), VSBK (Vertical Shaft Brick Kiln) experiences (India, Nepal and Vietnam) leading to the publication “Brick by Brick: The Herculean Task to clean up the Asian Brick industry” and Mission to the Swisscontact Brick Project (Peru).

Dr. Anjan Kumar Chatterjee – Chairman, Conmat Technologies Private Ltd.

Dr. Anjan Kumar Chatterjee is PhD in Materials Science. He has been Whole-time Director on the Board of Directors of ACC Ltd. as well as of several other companies. Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), Cement Manufacturers Association (CMA), Indian Concrete Institute (ICI) and Association of Consulting Civil Engineers (ACCCE) has honored him with Life-time achievement award. He has also been the president of Coal ash Association of India and Cement Production Expert of UNIDO. He now advices cement companies in India and consult them on cement production, cements application, production of building materials, concrete making, concrete buildings and damage diagnosis.

Kurt Rhyner – Founding Member, EcoSur network & grupo sofonias

Kurt Rhyner is the coordinator and founding member of the EcoSur network as well as grupo sofonias, a Swiss based non-profit organization active in various countries. He is an architect and involved in the conception of projects, analysis of technologies and materials appropriate to the specific conditions of developing countries. He has been active in researching and developing local small scale production and use of materials for popular housing in Latin America and Africa for more than three decades. As hands-on project manager and associate of research centers and universities he has covered the span from earth construction to the early experimental work that lead to the development of LC3. Use of ecological and economical construction materials and technologies resilient to earthquakes and other natural phenomena, specifically in post-disaster situations, is his specialty.

Dr.-Ing. Christian Artelt – Senior Manager Sustainable Construction, HeidelbergCement AG

Christian Artelt holds a PhD in Engineering from Technical University of Munich. He started his professional career in 1996 as Research Engineer at Hosokawa Mircon in Cologne (Germany) where contributed to the development of new processes and related equipment in the field of particle technology.

Christian Artelt joined the construction material sector in 2005. He first managed various R&D projects at Lafarge Centre de Recherche near Lyon (France) where he was also heading the so-called Particulate Solids Research Group.

In 2010 Christian Artelt joined HeidelbergCement Technology Center in Leimen (Germany) as R&D Portfolio Manager and Scientific Coordinator. He moved to HeidelbergCement’s Global Environmental Sustainability Department in 2017. In his current role as Senior Manager Sustainable Construction he oversees a broad range of activities dealing for example with innovative construction products with enhanced sustainability performance, responsible sourcing or circular economy related approaches in the construction material sector.

Christian Artelt is member of the Presidium of the European Construction Technology Platform ECTP where he also chairs the organization’s Materials and Sustainability Committee.

Dr. Arun Kumar (Chair) – President, Development Alternatives

Dr. Arun Kumar is President, Development Alternatives and has wide experience in the areas of Technology Innovation, Systems Engineering, Business Development, Organisation of Research and General Management.  Since 1989, he has been responsible for innovation and development of technology systems required for large-scale creation of sustainable livelihoods. He has been responsible for development and commercialisation of sustainable technology packages in the areas of Low Cost Construction, Decentralised Energy Production, Cleaner Production Technologies, Biomass Utilisation and Paper Recycling. He has received several national and international awards; NDTV-Toyota Greenies Award from President of India(2009) and Changing Markets Award(2013) from the German Federal Government. He has authored numerous publications on the technology and issues of sustainability, including ones related to technology assessment, technology development and processes that accelerate acceptance of cutting edge technologies.  Prior to joining Development Alternatives and TARA, Dr Kumar had been an engineer and senior manager in the corporate sector for 15 years and had held high-level positions with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Establishment, Harwell, UK and the Bhabha Atomic Energy Center, Bombay.


14h30 -14h35 Introduction to the workshop Dr. Soumen Maity (Moderator) EPFL & Development Alternatives Group
14h35 – 14h45 Key note address Dr. Arun Kumar


Development Alternatives Group
14h45 -14h55 Resource efficiency in cement opportunities – the case of LC3 Vanderley M. John


University of Sao Paulo, Brazil
14h55 – 15h05 LC3 Use in habitat and its implications on SDGs Kurt Rhyner

Founding Member

EcoSur Network
15h05 -15h15 Prospects of LC3 for resource conservation in India Dr. Anjan Kumar Chatterjee


Conmat Technologies Private Ltd.
15h15 – 15h25 Global opportunities for LC3 and its contribution towards sustainability Urs Heierli


msd Consulting GmbH
15h25 – 15h35 Sustainable cement production Dr. rer. nat. Dirk Schmitt

HoD Cement, Concrete & Applications

15h35 – 16h25 Panel discussion with the audience Moderator EPFL & Development Alternatives Group
16h25 – 16h30 Summing up and key message Moderator EPFL & Development Alternatives Group

About LC3

Limestone Calined Clay Cement (LC3) blend uses 50% clinker, 15% Non-cement grade (waste) limestone, 30% Waste china Clay (Overburden) from mines and 5% gypsum. LC3 has three major advantages — one, it reduces limestone use to about 50%; two, LC3 production can reduce CO2 emissions up to 30% and, three its production can be integrated into an existing cement plant without significant modifications in the existing machinery. Hence, it is not capital intensive to be adopted by cement industry.

The global research and implementation of LC3 is led by EPFL, Switzerland with Indian partners – IIT-Delhi, IIT-Madras, IIT-Bombay, TARA and Partner in Cuba-CIDem. The project is funded by Swiss Agency for Development and Corporation (SDC).

 Concrete Road made with LC3 in India

Concrete Road made with LC3 in India