Proposal of sustainable construction from the implementation of new materials to improve the structural design of housing in the town of Bete, Chocó, Colombia

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Topics: Sustainable and inclusive cities and buildings, Sustainable lifestyles and education

Keywords: Sustainable Construction, Biocomposites, Building Materials, Sustainable Housing

Daniela Gutiérrez Casado, Paola Andrea Pérez Lora, José Francisco Ibla Gordillo

Universidad El Bosque, Colombia; daniela.casado93@gmail.com

Summary:

The main objective is to formulate a proposal for sustainable construction, from the implementation of new materials, to improve the structural design of houses in Beté, Chocó, Colombia. This was accomplished by performing the diagnosis of specific environmental problems of the population; where techniques of documentary analysis, semi-structured interview through focus groups, observation and questionnaire survey were used. This information was processed and analyzed from a classification of first and second level, a stakeholder and statistical analysis. Moreover, it conducted the development of biocomposites with cane, bamboo fiber and recycled PET, from a compression molding technique. Subsequently thereof characterization was performed through the SEM, FTIR, compressive strength, a study of moisture absorption and LCA of the materials in the production phase, concluding with a multi-criteria analysis. Finally, the development of the structural design of the housing with the developed materials was carried out in accordance with sustainability criteria established in the LEED certification, document analysis techniques and finally a final prototype of sustainable housing. The results show that there is a problem referred to as the degradation of building materials and that the population of Beté has no proper habitability conditions. Regarding the development of the material processing, a ratio of fiber and polymer 13% and 87% respectively were established. Multi-criteria analysis showed that the best option is untreated bamboo fiber biocomposite (CFGs). Finally, according the fulfillment of requirements and LEED credits, it was found that the proposal is in the Gold category, earning a score 70/110. With this proposal, it was evident that sustainable construction is applicable at the regional level and beyond that, the innovation of materials has a high potential for the development of new design features in Beté, taking into account economic, ecological, technological and social criteria that are consistent with the current requirements of sustainability.

Biography:

Ingeniera ambiental graduada recientemente de la Universidad El Bosque de Bogotá, Colombia. Miembro del semillero de investigación del Programa de Ingeniería Ambiental de la Universidad El Bosque “Aprovechamiento de Residuos Poliméricos para la Elaboración de Materiales Sostenibles” sobre la elaboración de materiales principalmente para aplicaciones en la construcción. Investigadora asistencial en proyecto financiado en la misma institución, titulado “Aprovechamiento de la fracción de lignina de la cáscara del pistacho como refuerzo de una resina, para el desarrollo de un nuevo material favorable al ambiente”. Autora, junto con Paola Andrea Pérez y Francisco Ibla como director, del proyecto de grado “Propuesta de Construcción Sostenible, a partir de la implementación de nuevos materiales, para la mejora del diseño estructural de vivienda en la población de Beté, Chocó, Colombia” y finalistas en el Premio Nacional a la Vivienda de Interés Social Sostenible Julio Mario Santo Domingo, Colombia. Con experiencia en funciones de asistencia técnica y operativa en temas de ingeniería en consultoría ambiental, para la elaboración de Estudios de impacto Ambiental y Planes de Manejo Ambiental, principalmente para proyectos de tipo minero energético.

Casado